Dept. of Applied Physics
Oregon Graduate Center
In this study an electrohydrodynamic technique was used to study both electron and ion emission from liquid Ga. This source proved to be very bright and capable of producing large total currents in either the electron or ion mode of operation. With ion emission three modes of operation were observed; the dc, high frequency, and the pulse mode. With electron emission only the pulse mode was obtained. Three important factors in obtaining stable emission were the ability of the Ga to wet the nozzle, having the proper amount of Ga on the nozzle, and the source configuration. When these factors were satisfied, many hours of continuous and stable ion or electron emission could be obtained. The actual emission mechanism is complex and is not fully understood. However, it appears to be initiated by field emission in the electron mode and field evaporation in the ion mode.
Schwind, Gregory A., "Liquid metal and electron emission study" (1977). Scholar Archive. 31.