May 2013

Document Type


Degree Name



Dept. of Public Health and Preventive Medicine


Oregon Health & Science University


Objectives: (1) Describe prehospital use of naloxone in the United States in 2010. (2) Identify county level EMS and sociodemographic predictors of prehospital naloxone use. (3) Generate profiles of low, medium, and high risk counties. Methods: A 2010 national EMS database (NEMSIS) was joined to multiple sociodemographic databases. A negative binomial regression model was built to identify the most prominent predictors of prehospital naloxone use at the county level. Example risk profiles were produced for low, medium, and high risk counties. Results: Naloxone was administered at a rate of 7.71 naloxone uses per 1000 scene calls for the year 2010. County level risk factors identified were lack of health insurance, median household income, receiving disability benefits, infant deaths, census division, EMS scene location at home, EMS complaint of cardiac arrest or death, median age of EMS patients, EMS patients transported, EMS use of antiemetics, EMS response time, and EMS scene time. Protective factors identified were EMS patients of black race, median patient age, and time from EMS call to dispatch of ambulance. Conclusions: There is wide county level variation in the use of naloxone. County level EMS, sociodemographic, and geographic variables are important predictors of naloxone use.




School of Medicine



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